B-15 Replacement with complete LCA

Aspect B-15 Replacement with complete LCA
The replacement module covers the complete replacement of components and building parts if their reference service life is lower than the reference study period.

related study objective

stand-alone LCA comparative assertion

related study phase

goal and scope definition inventory analysis (LCI) impact assessment (LCIA) interpretation reporting

relevant for

new buildings existing buildings construction products screening LCA simplified LCA complete LCA
Provisions The replacement procedure refers only to planned action in response to anticipated losses of performance of building components and building parts. Replacements should be considered when the reference service life (or eventual design life) of a product or building part is lower than the reference study period.A replacement scenario at the building scale should be determined on the basis of:

  • individual EPD (cradle to gate with corresponding option, or cradle to grave);
  • client requirements and current practices;
  • product and component manufacturers’ information;
  • existing applicable standards such as ISO 15686-1, -2, -7 and -8 [ISO 15686].

Building modifications in response to unexpected events (e.g. flood, inappropriate use or vandalism) should be considered as reparation (B3).

According to EN 15978, the boundary for replacement should include:

  • production of the replaced component and ancillary products;
  • transportation of the replaced component and ancillary products, including production impacts and the aspects of any losses of materials during transportation;
  • the replacement process for the replaced components and ancillary products;
  • waste management of the removed component and of ancillary products;
  • the end-of-life stage of the removed component and of ancillary products.

Water and energy usage related to the replacement process should always be included.

The frequency of replacement should be determined according to the ‘replacement frequency’ aspect of the present guide.

Rules from:
EN 15978: General Boundary for replacement (Module B4)
8.3 Time related characteristics
8.6.3 Scenarios for maintenance, repair, replacement

EN 15804:

6.3.3. Reference service life  – B4 Replacement B1–B5 use stage related to the building fabric

Annex A

The overall replacement scenario should be consistent with respect to the building structure (e.g. replacement of coating is mandatory when replacing the support). In addition, LCA of existing building should take into account actual and established practices (real-life data) specific to that particular building.As replacement scenarios are based on the RSLs of building components and building parts, it should be noted that the RSL could be based on empirical, probabilistic or statistical data, and should always taking into account the intended use (description of use) as described in ISO 15686-1, -2, -7 and -8 [EN 15804, Annex A]. Furthermore, a component manufacturer cannot be held responsible for the actual design of the building or the use and application of the product, environment, workmanship or use[EN 15804, Annex A].Thus:

  • The overall replacement scenario should be consistent with the maintenance scenario.
  • Both maintenance and replacement scenarios should be based on reliable service life data, either included in the EPD, directly provided by the manufacturer, or based on sound research work.

For an existing building, if a component has failed before its reference service life because of inappropriate maintenance, it may be considered as belonging to the repair module instead

For a new building, replacement frequency and more generally the replacement scenario should be based on service life planning and service life prediction, as described by ISO 15686 series [ISO 15686]. It should be noted that: service life planning can only address foreseeable changes. Since service life planning is concerned with foreseeable risks, it is not applicable to the estimation of obsolescence […] or to defective performance resulting from unforeseeable events or processes [ISO 15686-1, part B.8.2.]. Both cases may be accounted for in the case of existing buildings whenever specific data are available.

The progressive loss of performance of some components has an impact on the overall behaviour of the building (e.g. loss of performance of insulation may lead to an increase of energy demand due to heating). If sufficient data are available these aspects should be addressed by using a sensitivity analysis.

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