Annex B: Reference values for LCA indicators for buildings

For referencing purposes, typical LCA results may be helpful. These values are typically heavily dependent on the assumptions made, and on the various rules that have been applied to a study. Hence a comparison with such values has to be made with special care.

Germany: DGNB

In Germany, the DGNB building labelling system defines benchmarks for the ‘physical part of the building’, i.e. the combination of building construction (Modules A1–A3), maintenance and refurbishment (Modules B2–B5) and the end of life (Modules C and D). All DGNB rules and provisions (e.g. reference study period) apply to allow for a justified comparison.


France: HQE Performance

The following tables present the results of a French pilot project, called HQE Performance, concerning the LCA of 74 low-energy buildings. The building LCA tool ELODIE has been used to perform the life cycle assessment of every case study. Results are presented as mean values calculated for the construction of new buildings for a 50-year reference study period.
The following building types are considered:

  • detached houses;
  • multi-residential buildings;
  • office buildings

Reference values are detailed for the following building impact sources:

  • equipment, products and materials (from cradle to grave, i.e. Modules A, B, C);
  • operational water consumption (Module B7);
  • operational energy consumption (thermal regulation uses, Module B6);
  • operational energy consumption (other uses, Module B6).


Reference values for new buildings

Note: The four indicators considered (non-renewable primary energy, global warming potential, inert waste and water consumption) are calculated according to the rules given in the French XP P01-020-3 and NF P01-010 standards.

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