B-14 Replacement with simplified LCA

Aspect B-14 Replacement with simplified LCA
Description
The replacement module covers the complete replacement of components and building parts if their reference service life is lower than the reference study period. Replacement is mandatory for a limited set of building parts and components in the context of a simplified LCA.

related study objective

stand-alone LCA comparative assertion

related study phase

goal and scope definition inventory analysis (LCI) impact assessment (LCIA) interpretation reporting

relevant for

new buildings existing buildings construction products screening LCA simplified LCA complete LCA
Provisions The replacement procedure refers only to planned action in response to anticipated losses of performance of building components and building parts. Replacements should be considered when the reference service life (or eventual design life) of a product or building part is lower than the reference study period.The replacement scenario should cover at least the elements in the following list (item marked with a * are suggested):

  • roof*;
  • windows*;
  • floor finishes and coverings*;
  • refrigeration* and coolants;
  • decorative wall finishes and coatings (e.g. wallpaper, paints);
  • doors;
  • heating, cooling and lighting equipment, and any power-generating equipment (e.g. wind turbines, PV or solar heating)*;
  • equipment for internal transport (e.g. lifts, escalators)*;
  • water and sewerage systems;
  • electrical distribution system.

The replacement of load-bearing structure, exterior and basement walls, floor slabs and foundation should not be considered unless justified, as it usually entails significant building modification.

In any case the boundaries of the maintenance scenario should be clearly stated.

A replacement scenario at the building scale should be determined on the basis of:

  • individual EPD (cradle to gate with corresponding option, or cradle to grave);
  • client requirements and current practices;
  • product and component manufacturers’ information;
  • existing applicable standards such as ISO 15686-1, -2, -7 and -8 [ISO 15686].

Building modifications in response to unexpected events (e.g. flood, inappropriate use or vandalism) should be considered as reparation (B3), and are thus optional in the context of a simplified LCA.

According to EN 15978, the boundary for replacement should include:

  • production of the replaced component and ancillary products;
  • transportation of the replaced component and ancillary products, including production impacts and the aspects of any losses of materials during transportation;
  • the replacement process for the replaced components and ancillary products;
  • waste management of the removed component and of ancillary products;
  • the end-of-life stage of the removed component and of ancillary products.

However, in the context of a simplified LCA, only the production of the replaced component need be included.

The frequency of replacement may be determined according to the ‘replacement frequency’ aspect of the present guide.

Rules from:
EN 15978:7.4.4.1 General

7.4.4.5 Boundary for replacement (Module B4)

8.3 Time related characteristics

8.6.3 Scenarios for maintenance, repair, replacement

EN 15804:

6.3.3. Reference service life

6.3.4.4.2 – B4 Replacement

7.3.3.1 B1–B5 use stage related to the building fabric

Annex A

Guidance
The overall replacement scenario should be consistent with respect to the building structure (e.g. replacement of coating is mandatory when replacing the support).In addition, LCA of an existing building should take into account actual and established practices (real-life data) specific to that particular building.As replacement scenarios are based on the RSLs of building components and building parts, it should be noted that the RSL could be based on empirical, probabilistic or statistical data, and should always taking into account the intended use (description of use) as described in ISO 15686-1, -2, -7 and -8 [EN 15804, Annex A]. Furthermore, a component manufacturer cannot be held responsible for the actual design of the building or the use and application of the product, environment, workmanship or use [EN 15804, Annex A].

Thus:

  • The overall replacement scenario should be consistent with the maintenance scenario.
  • Both maintenance and replacement scenarios should be based on reliable service life data, either included in the EPD, directly provided by the manufacturer, or based on sound research work.

For an existing building, if a component has failed before its reference service life because of inappropriate maintenance, it may be considered as belonging to the repair module instead.


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