|Aspect||C-07 Waste treatment vs recycling and recovery process|
||How should the waste treatment and recycling/reuse/energy recovery of building materials be accounted for (e.g. different recycling practices, economic feasibility)?|
related study objective
|☒ stand-alone LCA||☒ comparative assertion|
related study phase
|goal and scope definition||inventory analysis (LCI)||impact assessment (LCIA)||interpretation||reporting|
|new buildings||existing buildings||construction products||screening LCA||simplified LCA||complete LCA|
|Provisions||The provisions in EN 15804 should be referred to.Scenarios should then be developed, based on each national context. For example, for the French context [ADEME 2010] can be referred to for estimates of the amounts of sorted and recycled materials.This aspect is likely to be predefined in every national EPD programme, and may be adopted within a given LCA study.|
||Module C3 provides information on waste treatment processes until the product reaches the end-of-waste state or is disposed of (included in C4). In theory, processes before the end-of-waste state is reached are waste treatment processes, and processes after the end-of-waste state is reached are recycling or recovery processes. When deciding whether a process should be included in C3 or be considered as a recycling process within Module D. the focus should be less on the terminology for the process and more on whether the waste has reached the end-of-waste state. The default scenario for the end-of-life stage C3 should be based on current national practice for demolition material. However, alternative scenarios can be given, if a range of waste treatment options is available.National schemes may provide default scenarios and models for Module C3 for various materials, based on current practice.The end-of-waste state is defined in EN 15804 184.108.40.206. All waste treatment process impacts until the end-of-waste state are reached should be included in Module C3, excluding demolition (considered in C1) and transport to waste treatment or disposal (considered in C2).
The Loads and benefits of recycling, recovery and reuse beyond the system boundary are recorded in Module D.
Energy recovered by energy recovery processes, e.g. incineration with an efficiency greater than 60%, is recorded in Module D (as the recovery process impacts and avoided impacts of conventional generation), as the material must have reached the end-of-waste state to be considered for energy recovery (EN 15804 220.127.116.11 Note 2).
Recovery processes with efficiencies of less than 60% cannot be considered as energy recovery, and must be considered as waste management processes, e.g. as incineration (Module C4).
Incineration of demolition materials that have not reached the end-of-waste state must also be considered within Module C4, irrespective of the efficiency of incineration (EN 15804 18.104.22.168 Note 2). In both instances, benefits from these C3 processes beyond the system boundary can be recorded in Module D.